JUnit5编写基本测试

JUnit5编写基本测试

JUnit5的测试不是通过名称,而是通过注解来标识的。

测试类与方法

Test Class:测试类,必须包含至少一个test方法,包括:

  • 最外层的class
  • static member class
  • @Nested class

Test Method:测试方法,包括:

  • @Test
  • @RepeatedTest
  • @ParameterizedTest
  • @TestFactory
  • @TestTemplate

Lifecycle Method:生命周期方法,包括:

  • @BeforeAll
  • @AfterAll
  • @BeforeEach
  • @AfterEach

注意:

  1. Test Method和Lifecycle Method不能是abstract也不能return。它们可以在当前测试类中声明,也可以继承自父类或接口。
  2. Test class、Test Method和Lifecycle Method都不能是private。

示例代码:

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.fail;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assumptions.assumeTrue;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterAll;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.AfterEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.BeforeAll;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.BeforeEach;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Disabled;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

class StandardTests {

    @BeforeAll
    static void initAll() {
    }

    @BeforeEach
    void init() {
    }

    @Test
    void succeedingTest() {
    }

    @Test
    void failingTest() {
        fail("a failing test");
    }

    @Test
    @Disabled("for demonstration purposes")
    void skippedTest() {
        // not executed
    }

    @Test
    void abortedTest() {
        assumeTrue("abc".contains("Z"));
        fail("test should have been aborted");
    }

    @AfterEach
    void tearDown() {
    }

    @AfterAll
    static void tearDownAll() {
    }

}

自定义显示名字

Test class和test method可以使用@DisplayName自定义在测试报告中的显示名字,支持空格、特殊字符和emoji表情符号。

示例:

import org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayName;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

@DisplayName("A special test case")
class DisplayNameDemo {

    @Test
    @DisplayName("Custom test name containing spaces")
    void testWithDisplayNameContainingSpaces() {
    }

    @Test
    @DisplayName("╯°□°)╯")
    void testWithDisplayNameContainingSpecialCharacters() {
    }

    @Test
    @DisplayName("")
    void testWithDisplayNameContainingEmoji() {
    }

}

除了@DisplayName@DisplayNameGeneration 注解能用来对显示名字做统一处理,JUnit Jupiter自带了一些生成器:

  • Standard 匹配标准行为
  • Simple 删除没有参数的方法后面的括号
  • ReplaceUnderscores 用空格替换下划线
  • IndicativeSentences 把test class和test method名字连接起来

示例代码:

import org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayName;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayNameGeneration;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayNameGenerator;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.IndicativeSentencesGeneration;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Nested;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.ParameterizedTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.ValueSource;

class DisplayNameGeneratorDemo {

    @Nested
    @DisplayNameGeneration(DisplayNameGenerator.ReplaceUnderscores.class)
    class A_year_is_not_supported {

        @Test
        void if_it_is_zero() {
        }

        @DisplayName("A negative value for year is not supported by the leap year computation.")
        @ParameterizedTest(name = "For example, year {0} is not supported.")
        @ValueSource(ints = { -1, -4 })
        void if_it_is_negative(int year) {
        }

    }

    @Nested
    @IndicativeSentencesGeneration(separator = " -> ", generator = DisplayNameGenerator.ReplaceUnderscores.class)
    class A_year_is_a_leap_year {

        @Test
        void if_it_is_divisible_by_4_but_not_by_100() {
        }

        @ParameterizedTest(name = "Year {0} is a leap year.")
        @ValueSource(ints = { 2016, 2020, 2048 })
        void if_it_is_one_of_the_following_years(int year) {
        }

    }

}

@IndicativeSentencesGeneration可以自定义separator和generator。

结果:

+-- DisplayNameGeneratorDemo [OK]
  +-- A year is not supported [OK]
  | +-- A negative value for year is not supported by the leap year computation. [OK]
  | | +-- For example, year -1 is not supported. [OK]
  | | '-- For example, year -4 is not supported. [OK]
  | '-- if it is zero() [OK]
  '-- A year is a leap year [OK]
    +-- A year is a leap year -> if it is divisible by 4 but not by 100. [OK]
    '-- A year is a leap year -> if it is one of the following years. [OK]
      +-- Year 2016 is a leap year. [OK]
      +-- Year 2020 is a leap year. [OK]
      '-- Year 2048 is a leap year. [OK]

除了注解,也能通过配置设定全局的默认Generator,比如在 src/test/resources/junit-platform.properties文件中:

junit.jupiter.displayname.generator.default = \
    org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayNameGenerator$ReplaceUnderscores

既可以指定现有Generator,也可以指定实现了DisplayNameGenerator接口的类。

自定义显示名字的优先级是:

  1. @DisplayName
  2. @DisplayNameGeneration
  3. junit.jupiter.displayname.generator.default
  4. org.junit.jupiter.api.DisplayNameGenerator.Standard

断言(Assertions)

JUnit5的断言是包含在org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions中的静态方法,比如assertTrue、assertEquals、assertNotNull、assertAll、assertThrows、assertTimeout、assertTimeoutPreemptively等。

示例代码如下:

import static java.time.Duration.ofMillis;
import static java.time.Duration.ofMinutes;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertAll;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertNotNull;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertThrows;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTimeout;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTimeoutPreemptively;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;

import example.domain.Person;
import example.util.Calculator;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

class AssertionsDemo {

    private final Calculator calculator = new Calculator();

    private final Person person = new Person("Jane", "Doe");

    @Test
    void standardAssertions() {
        assertEquals(2, calculator.add(1, 1));
        assertEquals(4, calculator.multiply(2, 2),
                "The optional failure message is now the last parameter");
        assertTrue('a' < 'b', () -> "Assertion messages can be lazily evaluated -- "
                + "to avoid constructing complex messages unnecessarily.");
    }

    @Test
    void groupedAssertions() {
        // In a grouped assertion all assertions are executed, and all
        // failures will be reported together.
        assertAll("person",
            () -> assertEquals("Jane", person.getFirstName()),
            () -> assertEquals("Doe", person.getLastName())
        );
    }

    @Test
    void dependentAssertions() {
        // Within a code block, if an assertion fails the
        // subsequent code in the same block will be skipped.
        assertAll("properties",
            () -> {
                String firstName = person.getFirstName();
                assertNotNull(firstName);

                // Executed only if the previous assertion is valid.
                assertAll("first name",
                    () -> assertTrue(firstName.startsWith("J")),
                    () -> assertTrue(firstName.endsWith("e"))
                );
            },
            () -> {
                // Grouped assertion, so processed independently
                // of results of first name assertions.
                String lastName = person.getLastName();
                assertNotNull(lastName);

                // Executed only if the previous assertion is valid.
                assertAll("last name",
                    () -> assertTrue(lastName.startsWith("D")),
                    () -> assertTrue(lastName.endsWith("e"))
                );
            }
        );
    }

    @Test
    void exceptionTesting() {
        Exception exception = assertThrows(ArithmeticException.class, () ->
            calculator.divide(1, 0));
        assertEquals("/ by zero", exception.getMessage());
    }

    @Test
    void timeoutNotExceeded() {
        // The following assertion succeeds.
        assertTimeout(ofMinutes(2), () -> {
            // Perform task that takes less than 2 minutes.
        });
    }

    @Test
    void timeoutNotExceededWithResult() {
        // The following assertion succeeds, and returns the supplied object.
        String actualResult = assertTimeout(ofMinutes(2), () -> {
            return "a result";
        });
        assertEquals("a result", actualResult);
    }

    @Test
    void timeoutNotExceededWithMethod() {
        // The following assertion invokes a method reference and returns an object.
        String actualGreeting = assertTimeout(ofMinutes(2), AssertionsDemo::greeting);
        assertEquals("Hello, World!", actualGreeting);
    }

    @Test
    void timeoutExceeded() {
        // The following assertion fails with an error message similar to:
        // execution exceeded timeout of 10 ms by 91 ms
        assertTimeout(ofMillis(10), () -> {
            // Simulate task that takes more than 10 ms.
            Thread.sleep(100);
        });
    }

    @Test
    void timeoutExceededWithPreemptiveTermination() {
        // The following assertion fails with an error message similar to:
        // execution timed out after 10 ms
        assertTimeoutPreemptively(ofMillis(10), () -> {
            // Simulate task that takes more than 10 ms.
            new CountDownLatch(1).await();
        });
    }

    private static String greeting() {
        return "Hello, World!";
    }

}

假设(Assumptions)

JUnit5的断言是包含在org.junit.jupiter.api.Assumptions中的静态方法,比如assumeTrue、assumingThat等。

示例代码:

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assumptions.assumeTrue;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assumptions.assumingThat;

import example.util.Calculator;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

class AssumptionsDemo {

    private final Calculator calculator = new Calculator();

    @Test
    void testOnlyOnCiServer() {
        assumeTrue("CI".equals(System.getenv("ENV")));
        // remainder of test
    }

    @Test
    void testOnlyOnDeveloperWorkstation() {
        assumeTrue("DEV".equals(System.getenv("ENV")),
            () -> "Aborting test: not on developer workstation");
        // remainder of test
    }

    @Test
    void testInAllEnvironments() {
        assumingThat("CI".equals(System.getenv("ENV")),
            () -> {
                // perform these assertions only on the CI server
                assertEquals(2, calculator.divide(4, 2));
            });

        // perform these assertions in all environments
        assertEquals(42, calculator.multiply(6, 7));
    }

}

Assertions与Assumptions区别

Assertions如果失败,test会被标记为failed。Assumptions如果失败,test会被标记为ignored,测试不会执行

示例:

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assumptions.assumeTrue;

public class Demo {
    @Test
    void assertTest() {
        assertTrue(false);
    }

    @Test
    void assumeTest() {
        assumeTrue(false);
    }
}

结果:

%title插图%num

禁用测试

@Disabled能用来禁用test class或test method,建议在括号内填写上禁用理由。

示例:

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Disabled;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

@Disabled("Disabled until bug #99 has been fixed")
class DisabledClassDemo {

    @Test
    void testWillBeSkipped() {
    }

}
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Disabled;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

class DisabledTestsDemo {

    @Disabled("Disabled until bug #42 has been resolved")
    @Test
    void testWillBeSkipped() {
    }

    @Test
    void testWillBeExecuted() {
    }

}

小结

本文首先介绍了如何使用测试类与方法,来编写一个JUnit5的基本测试,然后介绍了如何自定义测试报告中的显示名字。使用断言(Assertions)可以把test标记为failed,使用假设(Assumptions)可以把test标记为ignored。最后介绍了如何禁用测试。除了基本测试,JUnit5还能编写带条件的测试。

参考资料:

https://junit.org/junit5/docs/current/user-guide/#writing-tests

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/44628483/assume-vs-assert-in-junit-tests

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